Agaric’s Content Style Guide¶
Please reference this styleguide when writing for Agaric to keep our communications clear and consistent.
Good content is authentic, useful, and appropriate to its context.
Agaric’s voice is straightforward, bold, and irreverant.
Writing about people¶
We write and build apps with a person-first perspective. Being aware of the impact of language is one way for us to live out our values.
Do not reference age or ability unless it is immediately relevant.
Avoid gendered language and use the singular they.
When writing about a person, use their preferred pronouns; if you do not know those, use their name.
Related resource: The Conscious Style Guide.
Grammar and mechanics¶
Some people will read every word you write. Others will just scan. Help everyone by grouping related ideas together and using descriptive headers and subheaders.
Focus your message, and create a hierarchy of information. Lead with the main point or the most important content.
Use active voice and positive language.
Use short words and sentences.
Avoid unnecessary modifiers.
Use specific examples.
Avoid vague language.
Be consistent. Adhere to the copy patterns and style points outlined in this guide.
Do not use contractions as they cheapen the content and provide difficulty for readers of other languages.
Use the serial comma. Otherwise, use common sense. (Also known as the Oxford comma, it helps clarify when items in a list of three, four, or more things are their own items.)
Do not use underline for emphasis, and do not use any combination of italic, bold, caps, and underline.
When in doubt, read your writing out loud.
Many of these repeat or reinforce George Orwell’s six rules from his essay “Politics and the English Language” (1946), and it is worth keeping all of them in mind, especially the last:
(i) Never use a metaphor, simile or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print.
(ii) Never use a long word where a short one will do.
(iii) If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out.
(iv) Never use the passive where you can use the active.
(v) Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent.
(vi) Break any of these rules sooner than say anything barbarous.
Writing for accessibility¶
Create a hierarchy, with the most important information first. Place similar topics in the same paragraph, and clearly separate different topics with headings.
Use plain language. Write short sentences and familiar words.
Links should provide information on the associated action or destination. Avoid saying “click here” or “learn more.”
Avoid using images when descriptive text will do.
Avoid directional instructions or language that requires the reader to see the layout or design of the page.
Label inputs on forms with clear names and use appropriate tags. Think carefully about what fields are necessary, and especially which ones you mark as required.
Writing for translation¶
Use active voice.
Avoid double negatives.
Do not use contractions as they cheapen the content and provide difficulty for readers that do not speak English of other languages.
Avoid using synonyms for the same word in a single piece of writing.
Write briefly, but do not sacrifice clarity for brevity. You may need to repeat or add words to make the meaning of your sentences clear to a translator.
Avoid slang, idioms, and cliches.
Avoid unnecessary abbreviations.
Writing Goals and Principles¶
With every piece of content we publish, we aim to:
Empower. Help people build the Open Web and the Free Software Movement by using language that informs them and encourages them to contribute.
Inspire. Lift up our work, our clients’ work, and our colleagues’ work to inspire others to support them or pursue their own work.
In order to achieve those goals, we make sure our content is:
Authentic. Write about what you are passionate about.
Useful. Before you start writing, ask yourself: What purpose does this serve? Who is going to read it? What do they need to know?
Appropriate. Write in a way that suits the situation. Just like you do in face-to-face conversations, adapt your tone depending on who you’re writing to and what you’re writing about.
Voice and Tone¶
We strive to have the same voice all the time, but our tone changes to suit the situation.
Agaric’s voice is:
Straightforward and earnest.
Unafraid of bold and even visionary calls to action.
Irreverant; the human condition is too serious to take anything too seriously.
Agaric’s tone is usually informal, but it is always more important to be clear than entertaining. When you are writing, consider the reader’s state of mind. Are they curious about a post on our blog? Are they distrustful after being burned by a previous vendor? Are they excited to be engaging in a redesign? Once you have an idea of their emotional state, you can adjust your tone accordingly.
Agaric has a sense of humor, so feel free to be funny when it is appropriate and when it comes naturally to you. If in any doubt, do not make the joke. Generally avoid humor in written communication to clients.
Writing About People¶
We write the same way we build software: with a person-first perspective. Whether writing for an internal or external audience, write for and about other people in a way that is compassionate, inclusive, and respectful. Being aware of the impact of our language will help make Agaric a better place to work and a better steward of our values in the world.
Do not reference a person’s age unless it is relevant to what you are writing. If it is relevant, include the person’s specific age, offset by commas. The CEO, 16, just got her driver’s license.
Do not refer to people using age-related descriptors like “young”, “old”, or “elderly”.
Do not refer to a person’s ability unless it is relevant to what you are writing. If you need to mention it, use language that emphasizes the person first: “she has a disability” rather than “she is disabled.” When writing about a person with disabilities, do not use the words “suffer,” “victim,” or “handicapped.” “Handicapped parking” is OK.
Avoid ableist language.
Gender and sexuality¶
Do not call groups of people “guys”. “All” is a useful, non-gendered term for addressing groups of people.
Do not call women “girls”.
Avoid gendered terms in favor of neutral alternatives, like “server” instead of “waitress” and “businessperson” instead of “businessman.”
Use “they” as a singular pronoun.
Use the following words as modifiers, but never as nouns:
transgender (never “transgendered”)
Do not use these words in reference to LGBTQIA people or communities:
Do not use “same-sex” marriage, unless the distinction is relevant to what you are writing, simply use “marriage.”
When writing about a person, use their communicated pronouns. When in doubt, ask for their pronouns or use their name.
Use “deaf” as an adjective to describe a person with significant hearing loss. You can also use “partially deaf” or “hard of hearing”.
Do not refer to a person’s medical condition unless it is relevant to what you are writing. If a reference to a person’s medical condition is warranted, emphasize the person first. Do not call a person with a medical condition a victim. Instead, use patient.
Mental and cognitive conditions¶
Do not refer to a person’s mental or cognitive condition unless it is relevant to what you are writing. Never assume that someone has a medical, mental, or cognitive condition. Do not describe a person as “mentally ill.” If a reference to a person’s mental or cognitive condition is warranted, use the same rules as writing about abilities or medical conditions and emphasize the person first.
Use the adjective “blind” to describe a person who is unable to see. Use “low vision” to describe a person with limited sight.
Grammar and mechanics¶
Adhering to certain rules of grammar and mechanics helps us keep our writing clear and consistent. This section will lay out our house style, which applies to all of our content unless otherwise noted in this guide. (We cover a lot of ground in this section—the search feature will help if you are looking for something in particular.)
Write for all readers. Some people will read every word you write. Others will just skim. Help everyone read better by grouping related ideas together and using descriptive headers and subheaders.
Focus your message. Create a hierarchy of information. Lead with the main point or the most important content, in sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages.
Be concise. Use short words and sentences. Avoid unnecessary modifiers.
Be specific. Avoid vague language. Cut the fluff.
Be consistent. Stick to the copy patterns and style points outlined in this guide.
Abbreviations and acronyms¶
If there is a chance your reader will not recognize an abbreviation or acronym, spell it out the first time you mention it. Then use the short version for all other references. If the abbreviation is not clearly related to the full version, specify in parentheses.
First use: Network Operations Center
Second use: NOC
First use: Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
Second use: UTC
If the abbreviation or acronym is well known to your full intended audience, like API or HTML in technical documentation, use it instead (and do not worry about spelling it out).
Use active voice. Avoid passive voice.
In active voice, the subject of the sentence does the action. In passive voice, the subject of the sentence has the action done to it.
Yes: Marti logged into the account.
No: The account was logged into by Marti.
Words like “was” and “by” may indicate that you’re writing in passive voice. Scan for these words and rework sentences where they appear.
One exception is when you want to specifically emphasize the action over the subject. In some cases, this is fine.
Your account was flagged by our abuse team.
We use a few different forms of capitalization. Title case capitalizes the first letter of every word except articles, prepositions, and conjunctions. We use title case for the titles of pages, including blog posts and basic pages.
Sentence case capitalizes the first letter of the first word.
When writing out an e-mail address or website URL, use all lowercase.
Do not capitalize random words in the middle of sentences. Here are some words that we never capitalize in a sentence. For more, see the Word list.
They are bad! Even though they may give your writing an informal feel, they provide difficulty for readers that do not speak English. You can make your writing informal without the use of contractions.
Keep out of blog posts and web copy entirely. Emoji are a fun way to add humor and visual interest to your writing, but use them infrequently and deliberately.
Spell out a number when it begins a sentence or is under ten. Ten to twenty is a judgement call (but usually spelled out if not paired with numerals). Otherwise, use the numeral. This includes ordinals, too.
Ten new members started on Monday, and twelve start next week.
I ate three doughnuts at coffee hour.
Meg won first place in last year’s hackathon.
We hosted a group of eighth graders who are learning to code.
We attended the 33rd annual picnic.
One hundred trainees started the course but only 43 finished.
Numbers over 3 digits get commas:
Write out big numbers in full. Abbreviate them if there are space restraints, as in a tweet or a chart: 1k, 150k.
Generally, spell out the day of the week and the month. Abbreviate only if space is an issue in the app.
Saturday, January 24
Sat., Jan. 24
Decimals and fractions¶
Spell out fractions.
Use decimal points when a number can’t be easily written out as a fraction, like 1.375 or 47.2.
This depends on context - use the % symbol or spell out “percent” depending on which looks best.
Ranges and spans¶
Use an en-dash (–) to indicate a range or span of numbers. (On Mac: Option +
- (dash). On Windows: Control +
- (dash). On Debian or Ubuntu with compose key enabled: compose +
--. (dash dash period).
It takes 20–30 days.
When writing about US currency, use the dollar sign before the amount. Include a decimal and number of cents if more than 0.
When writing about other currencies, follow the same symbol-amount format:
Use dashes without spaces between numbers. Use a country code if your reader is in another country.
Use the degree symbol and the capital F abbreviation for Fahrenheit.
Use numerals and am or pm, with a space in between. Do not use minutes for on-the-hour time.
Use an en-dash (–) between times to indicate a time period.
7 am – 10:30 pm
Specify time zones when writing about an event or something else people would need to schedule. Since Agaric was founded and has several worker-owners in Boston, Massachusetts, we default to ET.
Abbreviate time zones within the continental United States as follows:
Eastern time: ET
Central time: CT
Mountain time: MT
Pacific time: PT
When referring to international time zones, spell them out: Nepal Standard Time, Australian Eastern Time. If a time zone does not have a set name, use its Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) offset.
Abbreviate decades when referring to those within the past 100 years.
When referring to decades more than 100 years ago, be more specific:
The apostrophe’s most common use is making a word possessive. If the word already ends in an s and it is singular, you also add an ‘s. If the word ends in an s and is plural, just add an apostrophe.
The doughnut thief ate Sam’s doughnut.
The doughnut thief ate Chris’s doughnut.
The doughnut thief ate the managers’ doughnuts.
Note the exception to this rule: the word it, which does not use an apostrophe for its possessive, for example: “Our competitor had all its clients’ websites hacked.” Agaric avoids contractions so we do not ever use it’s but rather it is.
Apostrophes can also be used to denote that you have dropped some letters from a word, usually to match spoken language— an unofficial contraction. This is fine when quoting or paraphrasing and giving the feel of a statement is important, but do it sparingly.
Use a colon (rather than an ellipsis, em dash, or comma) to offset a list.
Erin ordered three kinds of doughnuts: glazed, chocolate, and pumpkin.
You can also use a colon to join 2 related phrases. If a complete sentence follows the colon, capitalize the 1st word.
I was faced with a dilemma: I wanted a doughnut, but I’d just eaten a bagel.
When writing a list, use the serial comma (also known as the Oxford comma).
Yes: David admires his parents, Oprah, and Justin Timberlake.
No: David admires his parents, Oprah and Justin Timberlake.
Otherwise, use common sense. If you are unsure, read the sentence out loud. Where you find yourself taking a breath, use a comma.
Dashes and hyphens¶
Use a hyphen (-) without spaces on either side to link words into single phrase
To indicate a span or range, use an n-dash (–).
Use an em dash (—) with a space after the dash to offset an aside. Use a true em dash, not hyphens (- or –). If the set-off phrase has the main part of the sentence continuing, do not include spaces around the em dash. If the set-off phrase ends the sentence, leave a space after the em dash.
We could build immensely powerful movements from the ground up, if we had a way to agree how shared resources of movements—including communication channels—would be controlled.
Migrate does almost all the work for us— we just need to create a Migration class and configure it using the constructor.
Ellipses (…) can be used to indicate that you are trailing off before the end of a thought. Use them sparingly. Do not use them for emphasis or drama, and do not use them in titles or headers.
“Where did all those doughnuts go?” Christy asked. Lain said, “I do not know…”
Ellipses, in brackets, can also be used to show that you are omitting words in a quote.
“When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, […] a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.”
Periods go inside quotation marks. They go outside parentheses when the parenthetical is part of a larger sentence, and inside parentheses when the parenthetical stands alone.
Christy said, “I ate a doughnut.”
I ate a doughnut (and I ate a bagel, too).
I ate a doughnut and a bagel. (The doughnut was Sam’s.)
Use two spaces after a period between sentences. This will be ignored in HTML but gives the opportunity to begin using a ligature that provides slightly more space at the end of a sentence than in acronyms, to prevent ambigities in interpretation such as: “We went to the U.S. I told him.”
Question marks go inside quotation marks if they are part of the quote. Like periods, they go outside parentheses when the parenthetical is part of a larger sentence, and inside parentheses when the parenthetical stands alone.
Use exclamation points sparingly, and never more than one at a time.
Exclamation points go inside quotation marks. Like periods and question marks, they go outside parentheses when the parenthetical is part of a larger sentence, and inside parentheses when the parenthetical stands alone.
Never use exclamation points in failure messages or alerts. When in doubt, avoid!
Use quotes to refer to words and letters, titles of short works (like articles and poems), and direct quotations.
Periods and commas go within quotation marks. Question marks within quotes follow logic— if the question mark is part of the quotation, it goes within. If you’re asking a question that ends with a quote, it goes outside the quote.
Use single quotation marks for quotes within quotes.
Who was it that said, “A fool and his doughnut are easily parted”?
Brad said, “A wise man once told me, ‘A fool and his doughnut are easily parted.’”
Go easy on semicolons; they usually support long, complicated sentences that could be simplified. Try an em dash (—) instead, or simply start a new sentence.
Do not use ampersands unless one is part of a company or brand name.
Ben and Dan
Ben & Jerry’s
People, places, and things
When referring generally to a file extension type, use all uppercase without a period. Add a lowercase s to make plural.
When referring to a specific file, the filename should be lowercase:
If your subject’s gender is unknown or irrelevant, use “they,” “them,” and “their” as a singular pronoun. Use “he/him/his” and “she/her/her” pronouns as appropriate. Do not use “one” as a pronoun.
For more on writing about gender, see Writing about people.
When quoting someone in a blog post or other publication, use the past tense.
“Working with Agaric has helped our business grow,” said Jamie Smith.
Names and titles¶
The first time you mention a person in writing, refer to them by their first and last names. On all other mentions, refer to them by their first name.
Capitalize the names of departments and teams (but not the word “team” or “department”).
Capitalize individual job titles when referencing to a specific role. Do not capitalize when referring to the role in general terms.
Our new Marketing Manager starts today.
All the managers ate donuts.
Do not refer to someone as a “guru,” “rockstar,” or “wizard” unless they literally are one.
The first time you mention a school, college, or university in a piece of writing, refer to it by its full official name. On all other mentions, use its more common abbreviation.
Georgia Institute of Technology, Georgia Tech
Georgia State University, GSU
States, cities, and countries
Spell out all city and state names. Do not abbreviate city names.
Per AP Style, all cities should be accompanied by their state, with the exception of: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Detroit, Honolulu, Houston, Indianapolis, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, New Orleans, New York, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington.
On first mention, write out United States. On subsequent mentions, US is fine. The same rule applies to any other country or federation with a common abbreviation (European Union, EU; United Kingdom, UK).
URLs and websites
Capitalize the names of websites and web publications. Do not italicize.
Avoid spelling out URLs, but when you need to, leave off the https://www.
Writing about Agaric¶
Our company’s legal entity name is Agaric, LLC. Our trade name is Agaric. Use Agaric, LLC only when writing legal documents or contracts. Otherwise, use Agaric or Agaric Technology Collective.
Always capitalize Agaric.
Refer to Agaric as we, not it.
Capitalize the proper names of Agaric platforms and projects.
Writing about other companies¶
Honor companies’ own names for themselves and their products. Go by whatever is used on their official website. Unless they end with an exclamation point (‘!’); that is absurd and will not be respected!
Refer to a company or product as it (not they).
Slang and jargon¶
Write in plain English. If you need to use a technical term, briefly define it so everyone can understand.
Use italics to indicate the title of a long work (like a book, movie, or album) or to emphasize a word.
Use italics when citing an example of an element, or referencing button and navigation labels in step-by-step instructions:
When you are done, click Send.
Do not use underline formatting, which typically indicates a link, and do not use a combination of italic, bold, or all capital letters.
Use positive language rather than negative language. One way to detect negative language is to look for words like “cannot” or “do not” (or the contractions we want to remove anyway, “can’t” and “don’t”).
Yes: To get a donut, stand in line.
No: You can’t get a donut if you don’t stand in line.
Content at Agaric takes many forms. Here is a rundown of the types of content we most often write.
What: Explanatory messaging that guides and informs users
Length: 10-50 words
Example: To get started, set a URL to import.
What: Short, encouraging message letting the user know they’ve accomplished something in the app
Length: 5-20 words
Example: Excellent! Your account has been created
Error or failure message¶
What: Short message that alerts the user to a problem in their account or on their site
Length: 20-75 words
Example: Looks like you may have left our default header content unmodified. Specifically, we still see ‘Use this area to offer a short preview’ in the pre-header/header area.
What: Informative articles about Agaric work, initiatives, and announcements
Length: 400-800 words
Example: Flat Comments in Drupal 8 without Dangerous Secret Threading
Writing blog posts
How To article¶
What: Easily digestible content that walks users through a process or problem
Length: 300-1,000 words
Example: Getting Started with Lists
Writing technical content
What: Policies that explain how we protect user privacy and how we handle accounts
Length: 1,000-4,000 words
What: Quick, informative announcements that we send to our media list and post to our Press Releases page.
Length: 300-500 words
Example: Agaric Launches Data Visualization Platform for Healthcare Providers
Every piece of content we publish is supported by a number of smaller pieces. This section lays out our style in regards to these web elements, and explains our approach to the tricky art of SEO.
Alt text is a way to label images, and it is especially important for people who can’t see the images on our website. Alt text should describe the image in a brief sentence or two. For more on how and why we use alt text, read the Accessibility section.
Use sentence case for checkboxes.
Form titles should clearly and quickly explain the purpose of the form.
Use title case for form titles and sentence case for form fields.
Keep forms as short as possible.
Only request information that we need and intend to use. Don’t ask for information that could be considered private or personal, including gender. If you need to ask for gender, provide a field the user can fill in on their own, not a drop-down menu. (Or use a comprehensive solution like the Drupal gender field module.)
Headings and subheadings¶
Headings and subheadings organize content for readers. Be generous and descriptive.
Headings (H1) give people a taste of what they’re about to read. Use them for page and blog titles.
Subheadings (H2, H3, etc.) break articles into smaller, more specific sections. They give readers avenues into your content and make it more scannable.
Headings and subheadings should be organized in a hierarchy, with heading first, followed by subheadings in order. (An H2 will nestle under H1, an H3 under H2, and on down.)
Include the most relevant keywords in your headings and subheadings, and make sure you cover the main point of the content.
Use title case, unless the heading is a punctuated sentence. If the heading is a punctuated sentence, use sentence case. Use sentence case for subheadings regardless of end punctuation.
Use lists to present steps, groups, or sets of information. Give context for the list with a brief introduction. Number lists when the order is important, like when you are describing steps of a process. Do not use numbers when the list’s order does not matter.
If one of the list items is a complete sentence, use proper punctuation and capitalization on all of the items. If list items are not complete sentences, do not use punctuation, but do capitalize the first word of each item.
Titles organize pages and guide readers. A title appears at the beginning of a page or section and briefly describes the content that follows.
Titles are (you guessed it) in title case.
Don’t use punctuation in a title unless the title is a question.
We write for humans, not machines. We do not use gross SEO techniques like keyword stuffing to bump search results. But we also want to make it easy for people and search engines to find and share our content. Here are some good ways to do this:
Organize your page around one topic. Use clear, descriptive terms in titles and headings that relate to the topic at hand.
Use descriptive headings to structure your page and highlight important information. Give every image descriptive alt text.
Writing blog posts¶
Agaric blog posts are written by people from all over the company, not just those with “writer” in their job titles. We love having people who know the most about what they do blog about their work. The person most familiar with the subject is in the best position to convey it, and other Agarics can help with brainstorming and editing as needed.
We update the main Agaric blog a couple times every month. We generally publish:
Elaborations on Agaric case studies
Things we have learned that may be of interest to other web developers
Informative or call-to-action posts about topics at the intersection of libre software, cooperation, and human liberation
We publish blog posts that explain the “why” behind the work we do at Agaric. We want to show people that we are an industry leader and we use our blog to tell the stories behind our work and services.
When writing for the blog, follow the style points outlined in the Voice and tone and Grammar and mechanics sections. Here are some more general pointers, too.
Be casual, but smart¶
This is not a term paper, so there is no need to be stuffy. Drop some knowledge while casually engaging your readers with conversational language.
If you are writing about data, put the numbers in context. If you are writing about an Agaric client, give the reader plenty of information about the organization’s purpose, workflow, technical needs and results.
Get to the point¶
Get to the important stuff right away, and don’t bury the kicker. Blog posts should be scannable and easy to digest. Break up your paragraphs into short chunks of three or four sentences, and use subheads. Our users are busy, and we should always keep that in mind.
Make them laugh¶
Agaric is a fun company, and we want our blog to reflect this. Feel free to throw in a joke here and there, or link out to a funny GIF or YouTube video when appropriate. Just do not overdo it or force it.
Include images in your blog posts when it makes sense. If you’re explaining how to do something, include screenshots to illustrate your point. Make sure to use alt text.
Writing case studies¶
This section is heavily influenced by Nick Disabato of Draft.
A case study shows potential clients a named real-world client we have worked with, along with the impact (economic or other) we had on their business or organization, with social proof from one or more members of the client’s team.
What to enforce upfront¶
This involves three bits that need to be contractually enforced before starting any engagement:
The client must be explicitly named.
The impact must be measurable. We cite a specific number that indicates the impact of our work. No numeric ranges here: only specific, precise numbers.
Social proof must be present. Get an awesome quotation about the impact of Agaric’s work from the client and publish the case study with their name in it.
These must be contractually enforced before the engagement begins, because they are always points of contention later.
Components of a Great Case Study¶
The problem. Explain or enumerate why a client came to Agaric, as well as any unique aspects of their problem. (The more expensive a problem is for a client, the more clearly we can show our impact.)
Our thinking. How did we begin approaching the problem? What research did we conduct to address it? What worked and what did not? What did we try?
The outcome. What was the measurable impact of our work?
A quotation. What did the client say about our work?
What happened next. Did the engagement expand in any capacity? Did we do other valuable things for them that were not part of the initial, agreed-upon scope?
A call to action. Case studies exist to generate additional leads for the consultancy, so end with a clear next step for the reader to take – one that probably begins with introducing the kind of work we can do for them, and encourages them to apply.
Writing about initiatives¶
Initiatives are meant to inform our audiences of how our work extends out to the greater world. Clearly convey their purpose, impact and how people can get involved.
Writing about upcoming events¶
Start with the essentials: what, when, where, cost and then follow with more specific details such as information about the people presenting or links to further background information.
Writing profile pages¶
This is an opportunity for people’s individuality to come through. Make these personable, highlight people’s passions, expertise and interesting facts that connect them to the reader.
Writing technical content¶
Someone reading technical content is usually looking to answer a specific question. That question might be broad or narrowly-focused, but either way our goal is to provide answers without distraction.
For each project, consider your audience’s background, goal, and current mood. Ask these questions:
Is the reader a prospective user, a new user, or an experienced user?
What is the goal of the reader? To complete a task? To research a topic?
Is the reader in the middle of a task? Are they in a hurry? Could they be frustrated?
We don’t want to overload a reader with unnecessary information, choices to make, or complex ideas or phrases, when we don’t have to. This is particularly critical when a user may be new and/or frustrated. When relevant, prime the reader with a brief outline of an article’s focus in an introductory paragraph or section, and stick to the topic at hand. Keep sentences, paragraphs, and procedural steps focused and concise.
Drafting technical content¶
Before you begin writing a new article, reach out to a subject matter expert (like an engineer, tester, designer, researcher, or technical support advisor) to get as much information as possible. You may only use a small portion of what you learn, but it helps to have more information than you need to decide where to focus your article.
Consider how many articles are needed and what article types will best describe a new feature or tasks to the user.
Outline your article, then write a draft. Stay in touch with your subject matter expert and revise as needed for accuracy, consistency, and length.
When you are happy with a draft, pass it to another technical writer for peer review. Then show it to a lead technical writer for additional review and revisions. For new content or highly complex content, send last draft to your subject matter expert for final approval.
Writing technical content¶
When writing technical content, follow the style points outlined in the Voice and tone and Grammar and mechanics sections. Here are some more general pointers, too.
Stay relevant to the title¶
When a user clicks the title of an article, they expect to find the answer they want. Do not stray too far from the title or topic at hand. Use links to make related content available. If you find you are getting too far from the intended topic, then you may need to create a separate but related article.
Keep headlines and paragraphs short and scannable¶
Focused users often scan an article for the part that will answer their particular question. Be sure headlines are short, descriptive, and parallel, to facilitate scanning.
Use second-person and describe actions to a user¶
Technical content talks to users when support agents cannot.
Strive for simplicity and clarity¶
Be as clear as possible. Use simple words and phrases, avoid gerunds and hard-to-translate idioms or words, focus on the specific task, limit the number of sentences per paragraph. If you must include edge cases or tangentially related information, set it aside in a Before You Start list or Notes field.
Provide context through embedded screenshots and GIFs¶
Screenshots and GIFs may not be necessary for every article or process, but can be helpful to orient new users. Crop screenshots tightly around the action to focus attention.
Editing technical content¶
We edit technical content based on three goals:
Cut or tighten redundancies, gerunds, adverbs, and passive constructions.
Use the simplest word.
Limit paragraphs to three sentences.
Use the labels and terminology used in the Agaric client’s app.
Use specific, active verbs for certain tasks.
Choose basic words and phrases to facilitate consistency across translated content.
Stay conversational, without using contractions.
Avoid qualifiers that muddy meaning.
Craft clear transitions from section to section to orient the reader.
Formatting technical content¶
Technical content uses organization, capitalization, and other formatting to help convey meaning. Although different articles are organized differently, some formatting tips are consistent throughout all technical content.
Capitalize proper names of Agaric products, features, pages, tools, and team names when directly mentioned. In step-by-step instructions, capitalize and italicize navigation and button labels as they appear in the app.
Group article content with H2s and H3s. Use H2s to organize content by higher-level topics or goals, and use H3s within each section to separate supporting information or tasks.
Only use ordered lists for step-by-step instructions. Separate steps into logical chunks, with no more than 2 related actions per step. When additional explanation or a screenshot is necessary, use a line break inside the list item.
Use unordered lists to display examples, or multiple notes in a Notes block. If an unordered list comprises more than 10 items, use a table instead.
Writing for Accessibility¶
We are always working to make our content more accessible and usable to the widest possible audience. Writing for accessibility goes way beyond making everything on the page available as text. It also affects the way you organize content and guide readers through a page. Depending on the audience and country, there may be laws governing the level of accessibility required. At minimum, an accessible version should be available. Accessibility includes users of all mental and physical capacities, whether situational (broken glasses!) or more permanent.
We write for a diverse audience of readers who all interact with our content in different ways. We aim to make our content accessible to anyone using a screen reader, keyboard navigation, or Braille interface, and to users of all cognitive capabilities.
As you write, consider the following:
Would this language make sense to someone who does not work here?
Could someone quickly scan this document and understand the material?
If someone cannot see the colors, images, or video, is the message still clear?
Is the markup clean and structured?
Mobile devices with accessibility features are increasingly becoming core communication tools, does this work well on them?
Many of the best practices for writing for accessibility echo those for writing technical content, with the added complexity of markup, syntax, and structure.
Avoid directional language
Avoid directional instructions and any language that requires the reader to see the layout or design of the page. Avoiding this is helpful for many reasons, including having the instructions still make sense after layout changes on mobile.
Yes: “Select from these options” (with the steps listed after the title)
No: “Select from the options in the right sidebar.”
Headers should always be nested and consecutive. Never skip a header level for styling reasons. To help group sections, be sure the page title is H1, top-level sections are H2s, and subsequent inside those are H3 and beyond. Avoid excessive nesting.
Employ a hierarchy¶
Put the most important information first. Place similar topics in the same paragraph, and clearly separate different topics with headings. Starting with a simple outline that includes key messages can help you create a hierarchy and organize your ideas in a logical way. This improves scannability and encourages better understanding. Make true lists instead of using a paragraph or line breaks.
Label inputs with clear names, and use appropriate tags. Think carefully about what fields are necessary, and especially which ones you mark as required. Label required fields clearly. The shorter the form, the better.
Use plain language¶
Write short sentences and use familiar words. Avoid jargon and slang. If you need to use an abbreviation or acronym that people may not understand, explain what it means on first reference.
Use alternative text¶
The alt tag is the most basic form of image description, and it should be included on all images. The language will depend on the purpose of the image:
If it is a creative photo or supports a story, describe the image in detail in a brief caption.
If the image is serving a specific function, describe what is inside the image in detail. People who do not see the image should come away with the same information as if they had.
If you are sharing a chart or graph, include the data in the alt text so people have all the important information.
Each browser handles alt tags differently. Supplement images with standard captions when possible.
Be mindful of visual elements¶
Aim for high contrast between your font and background colors. Tools in the resources section should help with picking accessible colors.
Images should not be the only method of communication, because images may not load or may not be seen. Avoid using images when the same information could be communicated in writing.
Writing for Translation¶
Agaric serves users in several countries and territories, not just the United States. As our user base grows, it becomes more and more important that our content is accessible to people around the world.
We call the process of writing copy for translation “internationalization.” This section will address things you can do to help international audiences, including translators, better comprehend your text.
We try to write all of our content in standard, straightforward English that can be understood by users with limited English proficiency. It is much easier for a translator to clearly communicate ideas written in straightforward, uncomplicated sentences.
Here are some guiding principles for writing for international audiences:
Use active voice. We always aim for this, but it is especially important when writing for translation.
Use the subject-verb-object sentence structure. It is not used by all languages, but it is widely recognized. That does not mean we should rely on it.
Use positive words when talking about positive situations. For example, because a question like “Don’t you think she did a great job?” begins with a negative word, a non-native English speaker may interpret its implication as negative. A better version would be “She did a great job, yes?”
When writing for international audiences, we generally follow what is outlined in the Voice and tone and Grammar and mechanics sections. But in this section more than others, some style points contradict what is stated elsewhere in the guide. If you are writing something to be translated, the guidelines in this section should take precedence.
Consider cultural differences¶
Agaric’s voice is conversational and informal. However, in some cultures, informal text may be considered offensive. Check with your translator to see if this is the case for the particular language you’re writing for.
Some languages have a clearer distinction between a formal or informal tone. (For example, in Spanish, it is possible to write informally where tú = you or formally where usted = you.)
When writing text that will be translated, be careful about making references to things of local or regional importance. These may not be recognizable to readers outside the US.
Keep your copy brief, but do n’t sacrifice clarity for brevity. You may need to repeat or add words to make the meaning of your sentences clear to a translator.
Repeat verbs that have multiple subjects.¶
Yes: Customers who have ordered online can pick up their food at the cashier. Walk-in customers should stop by the cashier to order their food.
No: Customers who have ordered online or who are walk-ins should stop at the cashier to order or pick up their food.
Repeat helping verbs belonging to multiple verbs¶
Yes: Agaric can build your website or can train your development team to build more powerful websites.
No: Agaric can build your website or train your development team to build more powerful websites.
Repeat subjects and verbs¶
Yes: Most Agarics have used contractions, but Micky has not. No: Most Agarics have used contractions, but not Micky.
Repeat markers in a list or series¶
Yes: Use Agaric’s Find It platform to post opportunities, to list service providers, and to connect kids with activities.
No: Use Agaric’s Find It platform to post opportunities, list service providers, and connect kids with activities.
Leave in words like “then”, “a”, “the”, “to”, and “that”, even if you think they could be cut¶
Yes: If there is not a test site set up, then you will need to create a test site before you can safely evaluate functionality changes.
No: If there is not a test site set up, you will need to create a test site before you can safely evaluate functionality changes.
Yes: Be sure that you are truly ready to show your work to the world before pushing your changes to live.
No: Be sure you are truly ready to show your work to the world before pushing your changes to live.
Avoid ambiguity and confusion¶
Many words, parts of speech, and grammar mechanics we don’t think twice about have the potential to cause confusion for translators and non-native English speakers. Here are some of the big trouble spots to avoid.
Avoid unclear pronoun references¶
Yes: Many believe that making functionality changes directly to a live site is OK. Such action can actually cause a site to break. Making functionality changes directly to a live site is not recommended.
No: Many believe that making functionality changes directly to a live site is OK. This can cause a site to break. It is not recommended.
Avoid -ing words¶
In English, many different types of words end in -ing: nouns, adjectives, progressive verbs, etc. But a translator who is a non-native English speaker may not be able to recognize the distinctions and may try to translate them all in the same way.
Because of this, we want to avoid -ing words when possible. One exception to this rule is words like “graphing calculator” and “riding lawnmower,” where the -ing word is part of a noun’s name.
Here are some other cases where you might see -ing words, and suggestions for how to edit around them.
Yes: In this article we will talk about how to encourage participants to sign up for training.
No: In this article we will talk about getting training participants.
Yes: At the top of the page, there is Ben with a smile on his face.
No: At the top of the page, there is a smiling Ben.
Parts of verbs¶
Yes: Several developers are currently working on that feature.
No: Several developers are working on that feature. (When you can’t easily avoid the -ing word, it may help to add an adverb to clarify the meaning.)
Parts of phrases modifying nouns¶
Yes: From our backyard, we could hear the planes that took off from the airport.
No: From our backyard, we could hear the planes taking off from the airport.
Other words and mechanics to avoid¶
Slang, idioms, and cliches
Contractions (English contractions may be harder to translate)
Shortened words, even if they are common in English (use “application,” not “app”)
Uncommon foreign words (use “genuine,” not “bona fide”)
Unnecessary abbreviations (use “for example,” not “e.g.”)
Converting one part of speech into another if it isn’t already commonly used (use “Send us an e-mail” instead of “message us”)
Non-standard or indirect verb usage (use “he says,” not “he’s like” or “he was all”)
Synonyms, generally. Do not use a lot of different words for the same thing in a single piece of writing. Instead of mixing it up with “campaign,” “newsletter,” “bulletin,” etc., pick one term and stick with it.
Beware words with multiple meanings¶
“Once” (could mean “one time,” “after,” “in the past,” or “when”)
Yes: After you log in, you will see your account’s Dashboard.
No: Once you log in, you will see your account’s Dashboard.
“Right” (could mean “correct,” “the opposite of left,” “politically conservative,” etc.)
Yes: In the File Manager, click the correct image and drag it to the pane at right.
No: In the File Manager, click the right image and drag it to the right pane.
“Since” (could refer to a point in time, or a synonym of “because”)
Yes: Because you already have a complete mailing list, you can send your campaign at any time.
No: Since you already have complete mailing list, you can send your campaign at any time.
“Require” plus an infinitive (could confuse the relationship between subject and object)
Yes: Autoresponders can be configured and sent from paid accounts.
No: A paid account is required to send autoresponders. (This could imply that users with paid accounts are required to send autoresponders.)
“Has” or “have” plus past participle (could confuse the relationship between subject and object)
Yes: The folder contains sent campaigns.
No: The folder has sent campaigns.
Measurements When writing for an international audience, use the metric system. Spell out all units and avoid abbreviation.
Currency Many countries call their currency “the dollar,” but the value is going to differ between countries. The US dollar is not the same as the Canadian dollar, for example. So it’s important to specify.
Avoid colloquial phrases that relate to money, like “five-and-dime,” “greenbacks,” or “c-notes.” These will not translate well.
Word list (specialized vocabulary)¶
add-on (noun, adjective), add on (verb)
back end (noun), back-end (adjective)
dropdown (noun, adjective), drop down (verb)
e-mail (always hyphenate, never capitalize unless it begins a sentence)
emoji (singular and plural)
front end (noun), front-end (adjective)
internet (only capitalize unless if it begins a sentence)
login (noun, adjective), log in (verb)
Like (the social media activity)
May First Movement Technology, or May First on subsequent uses (not MayFirst or MFPL or the old name, May First / People Link)
NOVA Web Development (abbreviated NWD)
online (never capitalize unless it begins a sentence)
opt-in (noun, adjective) , opt in (verb)
pop-up (noun, adjective), pop up (verb)
signup (noun, adjective), sign up (verb)
Words to avoid¶
funnel, incentivize, leverage, disruption, thought leader, or other fluffy corporate terms
internets, interwebs, or any other variation of the word “internet”
ninja, rockstar, wizard, unicorn (unless referring to a literal ninja, rockstar, wizard, or unicorn)
young, old, elderly, or any other word describing a person’s age
crushing it, killing it
crazy, insane, or similar words to describe people
Originally adapted from Mailchimp’s content style guide, Agaric’s content style guide is likewise available under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license.